Polybius on the Macedonian Wars gets into some of the nitty gritty, but basically the gist is that during the Samnite Wars, the Romans found that their phalanxes were being beaten by the Samnite light infantry and cavalry, who were used to fighting the mountainous terrain of Samnium.
Do people still use phalanx?
phalanx, in military science, tactical formation consisting of a block of heavily armed infantry standing shoulder to shoulder in files several ranks deep. Fully developed by the ancient Greeks, it survived in modified form into the gunpowder era and is viewed today as the beginning of European military development.
Why did they stop using the phalanx?
The assumption behind this question is that Rome initially used the hoplite phalanx in battle, but eventually abandoned it in favour of deployment in maniples, which were supposedly better suited for the hilly Italian countryside.
When did the phalanx start and end?
Traditionally, historians date the origin of the hoplite phalanx of ancient Greece to the 8th century BC in Sparta, but this is under revision.
Was the phalanx formation effective?
One of the most effective and enduring military formations in ancient warfare was that of the Greek phalanx. … The phalanx formation was a close-rank, dense grouping of warriors armed with long spears and interlocking shields.
Did Vikings use a phalanx?
The Viking shield wall (or skjaldborg in Old Norse) was a pretty conventional tactic used by the Norsemen in land battles. It entailed a phalanx-like formation of warriors who were up to five ranks deep.
How many soldiers are in a phalanx?
The typical phalanx was eight men deep, that is, eight rows of men, and any number of men wide. There are instances of both less and greater ranks of men in various battles though. The hoplite’s main weapon was a spear (600074) between seven to nine feet long.
What was the Macedonian phalanx called?
The Macedonian phalanx (Greek: Μακεδονική φάλαγξ) is an infantry formation developed by Philip II and used by his son Alexander the Great to conquer the Achaemenid Empire and defeat armies of other kingdoms.
Why was the Macedonian phalanx so successful?
So long as its rear and flank were protected, the formation was extremely powerful both as a defensive and an offensive weapon. An illustration of the Macedonian phalanx. This one is formed of 256 men. … So long as its flanks and rear were protected, the Macedonian phalanx proved unstoppable.
Did the Spartans use the phalanx?
Spartan Military Innovations. The hoplite phalanx, however, consisted of specially-armed infantry. They all wore bronze body armor, helmets, bronze shin guards, and all carried shields. … The phalanx was perfect for combat on open gound or level terrain.
What is the best military formation?
The wedge formation is a very old and very effective formation when employed correctly. Historically used with cavalry, the formation involves a mass of troops in a triangular wedge with the tip charging at the enemy.
What ended the phalanx?
The decisive arm was the Macedonian heavily cavalry, who exploited gaps or weaknesses in the enemy line, usually to obliterate the enemy command. The Macedonians ended the Greek phalanx by rendering it useless.
Why does the phalanx work so well?
One of the primary reasons for its success on the battlefield was the Phalanx formation. … When engaging in battle, the phalanx would form a tight defence and advance towards the enemy. The defence would be held tight by the hoplite shields and greaves which formed a barrier on all sides of the unit.
Where did the fiercest of all the Greek warriors come from?
The Spartan Army
Spartan hoplites were well-trained and the fiercest of the Greek soldiers. Their constant training made them dexterous in the formation of a phalanx. The highlight of the phalanx formation was that the success in the battle was a team effort and no one man could take credit for the victory.
How do you break a phalanx?
A phalanx fracture can happen when your finger or toe is hit, pulled, jammed, crushed, or twisted. It is also possible for a tumor or cyst to weaken the bone, causing it to break easily when injured.
What is a military formation called?
A tactical formation (or order) is the arrangement or deployment of moving military forces such as infantry, cavalry, AFVs, military aircraft, or naval vessels.